England dating customs
Down through the millennia, these “Vikings of the Pacific” made the ocean realm of what is the Pacific their own.Consequently, there developed throughout the great ocean landscape variations of basically similar cultural elements, like ancestor worship, the presence of a universal power contained in all animate and inanimate things (, Micronesia), and belief in the divine origins of cultural practices like tattooing.Body marking was usually performed by a priestly class of men (Polynesia) or women (Fiji, Micronesia).But by the beginning of the 19th century, European missionaries began to arrive and they rapidly converted many islanders to their foreign doctrines of religious persuasion.This is more for the sake of convenience because this culture area rivals the Arctic in size spanning thousands of miles east to west.What follows now is an overview of tattoo history and technique as it was traditionally practiced in the western islands of the Pacific, including Micronesia, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands.Everything will pass after death, only the tattoos will remain; they will outlive you.A human will leave all and everything behind on earth, all his/her belongings; only the tattoo will be taken to the grave.’ But tattoos also displayed the beauty of the islands’ inhabitants and animals for all to see.
(Similar instances of finger tattooing among high ranking women have also been documented in Fiji.) In addition to these tattoos, noble women who could afford them also wore tattoos on their shoulders called (from the tail of the frigate bird), chest, and a ‘secret’ tattoo on the vulva in a fashion similar to tattooing customs elsewhere in Micronesia (e.g., Palau, Pohnpei, Ulithi) and Fiji; these tattoos were inked by female tattoo artists.
Some designs started with the hands first (puberty) and worked up to the forearms (marriageability), then the legs (maturity).'” “I talked to one woman with a public tattoo who was in her eighties, and asked why her tattoo was so dark. I asked why, and she pulled my hand to feel her belly and it was very hard, children, and the tattoo had supported her lower [abdomen] and kept it from sagging, like a keloid girdle.
She was very proud of it.'” In Fiji and especially on Viti Levu, women also wore vulvic tattoos under their ‘) writing at the turn of the 20th century, the women who performed the painful rite were specifically referred to as ‘wise women.’ One was a kind of healer and her counterpart was the ‘expert tattooer.’ The rite was performed in the secret recesses of the forest, and young women were usually tattooed after they had reached puberty and before they were married.
Maria Yatar Mc Donald, a traditional tattoo artist based in Guam who studied the tradition of Micronesian tattooing from elders, has said that many older women in the outer islands of Yap and Palau still wore vulvic tattoos in the 1980s.
‘These could be a lover’s tattoo, done by a man on a lover, or done by a local male or female tattoo artist.In all of these regions, tattooing was intimately related to the surrounding environment and most of the tattooing motifs were symbols derived from nature, the great mother force that interactively shaped the worlds of these insular peoples.